About Forty-Five

New knowl­edge emerges out of lat­er­al think­ing and intu­ition, long-term pre­oc­cu­pa­tions and unex­pect­ed turns, raw evi­dence, real­i­ty checks, and oth­er motives. 

Through con­tent and for­mat, Forty-Five builds a new lin­eage for non-tra­di­tion­al research: work by ama­teurs, moon­lighters, and oth­ers exper­i­ment­ing both inside and out­side of insti­tu­tion­al or dis­ci­pli­nary frame­works. It also includes tra­di­tion­al schol­ar­ship about out­side researchers and their work.

Papers in Forty-Five are accom­pa­nied by a review: reflec­tions and spec­u­la­tions prompt­ed by the ini­tial con­tri­bu­tion. Each review is the first step in a dia­log, a pro­duc­tive response in keep­ing with the spir­it of out­side research.

Forty-Five is open-access. Its basic unit is the paper. All papers can be accessed online and down­loaded for free. Read­ers can also com­pile con­tent into vol­umes to pur­chase through print on demand. Sub­mis­sions are welcome.

A dis­tinc­tive angle, a dimen­sion with con­se­quence, and a plat­form for shar­ing new knowl­edge, Forty-Five was found­ed by David L. Hays and Jonathan Solomon and is pub­lished by Acute Angles Incor­po­rat­ed, a Chica­go-based non-prof­it cor­po­ra­tion com­mit­ted to edi­to­r­i­al, cura­to­r­i­al, and event-based projects in arts and culture.

A Jour­nal of Out­side Research
Pub­lished by Acute Angles, Inc.

David L. Hays

Edi­tor Emer­i­tus
Jonathan Solomon

Thirst and Span


Forty-Five is pub­lished by Acute Angles, Inc., a 501(c)(3) non-prof­it orga­ni­za­tion offer­ing con­sult­ing ser­vices for edi­to­r­i­al and cura­to­r­i­al projects, and oth­er forms of cul­tur­al chore­og­ra­phy. Dona­tions are tax-deductible to the extent allowed by law. Con­trib­u­tors will receive an acknowl­edge­ment by e‑mail that will con­sti­tute a receipt for tax purposes.

Unless oth­er­wise not­ed, the papers on this web­site are avail­able for down­load­ing and repub­lish­ing under a Cre­ative Com­mons Attri­bu­tion-Non-Com­mer­cial-NoDeriv­a­tives 4.0 Inter­na­tion­al License. You are free to share, copy, and redis­trib­ute the mate­r­i­al in any medi­um or for­mat. You must give appro­pri­ate cred­it to the author and to Forty-Five, you may not change the mate­r­i­al, and you may not use the mate­r­i­al for com­mer­cial pur­pos­es. Please see the fol­low­ing links for the License Deed and the Legal Code.


Leu­co­tis Ante­lope (female). Image tak­en from page 237 of George August Schwe­in­furth, The Heart of Africa. Three years’ trav­els and adven­tures in the unex­plored regions of Cen­tral Africa from 1868 to 1871 … Trans­lat­ed by E. E. Frew­er. With an intro­duc­tion by W. Reade … With maps and … illus­tra­tions’ (Lon­don: 1873) In the pub­lic domain cour­tesy of the British Library. Iden­ti­fi­er: 003307403.

Fig. 666. — Pul­ley and Lever Indi­ca­tor Gear — Over Motion. Image tak­en from page 881 of Caleb Pame­ly, The Col­liery Man­ager’s Hand­book … Fourth edi­tion, revised and enlarged’ (Lon­don: Cros­by Lock­wood and Son, 1898) In the pub­lic domain cour­tesy of the British Library. Iden­ti­fi­er: 002757964.

Pigeon in Flight. Image tak­en from Dugald Stew­art Walk­er (18831937), The Boy Who Knew What the Birds Said’ 

Fig. 3: a, an appa­ra­tus pro­duc­ing a con­stant sup­ply of car­bon­ic acid. Image tak­en from Legal Chem­istry: A Guide to the Detec­tion of Poi­sons, Exam­i­na­tion of Tea, Stains, Etc.’ (1884)

Health, Strength, and Vigour…” (tree print). Image Tak­en from page 18 of John Bewick, The Blos­soms of Moral­i­ty … Fourth Edi­tion’ (Lon­don: J. Swan, 1806)

Fig. 85. Image tak­en from page 459 of Friedrich Ratzel, Bib­lio­thek geo­graphis­ch­er Handbücher. Her­aus­gegeben von … F. Ratzel’ (Stuttgart: 1885)

Wol­las­ton’s reflect­ing Goniome­ter. Image tak­en from page 160 of David Thomas Anst­ed, An Ele­men­tary Course of Geol­o­gy, Min­er­al­o­gy, and Phys­i­cal Geog­ra­phy … Sec­ond Edi­tion’ (Lon­don: John Van Voorst 1856) In the pub­lic domain cour­tesy of the British Library. Iden­ti­fi­er: 000092983

Fig. 2. Image tak­en from page 186 of Joseph Ames­bury, Prac­ti­cal Remarks on the Nature and Treat­ment of Frac­tures of the Trunk and Extrem­i­ties, etc’ (Lon­don: Long­man & Co., 1831) In the pub­lic domain cour­tesy of the British Library. Iden­ti­fi­er: 000070452