About Forty-Five

New knowledge emerges out of lateral thinking and intuition, long-term preoccupations and unexpected turns, raw evidence, reality checks, and other motives. 

Through content and format, Forty-Five builds a new lineage for non-traditional research: work by amateurs, moonlighters, and others experimenting both inside and outside of institutional or disciplinary frameworks. It also includes traditional scholarship about outside researchers and their work.

Every paper in Forty-Five is accompanied by a review: reflections and speculations prompted by the initial contribution. Each review is the first step in a dialog, a productive response in keeping with the spirit of outside research.

Forty-Five is open-access. Its basic unit is the paper. All papers can be accessed online and downloaded for free.  Readers can also compile content into volumes to purchase through print on demand. Submissions are welcome.

A distinctive angle, a dimension with consequence, and a platform for sharing new knowledge, Forty-Five is published by Acute Angles Incorporated, a Chicago-based non-profit corporation committed to editorial, curatorial, and event-based projects in arts and culture.

A Journal of Outside Research
Published by Acute Angles, Inc.

David L Hays
Jonathan D Solomon


Twitter @acuteanglesinc
Instagram @acuteanglesinc

Forty-Five is published by Acute Angles, Inc., a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization offering consulting services for editorial and curatorial projects, and other forms of cultural choreography. Donations are tax-deductible to the extent allowed by law. Contributors will receive an acknowledgement by e-mail that will constitute a receipt for tax purposes.

© Copyright 2020 Acute Angles, Inc. Unless otherwise noted, the papers on this website are available for downloading and republishing under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. You are free to share, copy, and redistribute the material in any medium or format. You must give appropriate credit to the author and to Forty-Five, you may not change the material, and you may not use the material for commercial purposes. Please see the following links for the License Deed and the Legal Code.


Advisory Board 2018-2022

Rod Barnett
Professor and Chair of Landscape Architecture, Sam Fox School, Washington University in St. Louis

Ben Bascom
Assistant Professor, Department of English, Ball State University

David Gissen
Professor of Architecture, California College of the Arts

Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen
Associate Professor, School of Architecture, Yale University

Nora Wendl
Associate Professor, School of Architecture and Planning, University of New Mexico

Jessica Wilkinson
Senior Lecturer, School of Media and Communication, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT)



Leucotis Antelope (female). Image taken from page 237 of George August Schweinfurth, 'The Heart of Africa. Three years' travels and adventures in the unexplored regions of Central Africa from 1868 to 1871 ... Translated by E. E. Frewer. With an introduction by W. Reade ... With maps and ... illustrations’ (London: 1873) In the public domain courtesy of the British Library. Identifier: 003307403.

Fig. 666.—Pulley and Lever Indicator Gear—Over Motion. Image taken from page 881 of Caleb Pamely, 'The Colliery Manager's Handbook ... Fourth edition, revised and enlarged' (London: Crosby Lockwood and Son, 1898) In the public domain courtesy of the British Library. Identifier: 002757964.

Pigeon in Flight. Image taken from Dugald Stewart Walker (1883-1937), 'The Boy Who Knew What the Birds Said' 

Fig. 3: a, an apparatus producing a constant supply of carbonic acid. Image taken from 'Legal Chemistry: A Guide to the Detection of Poisons, Examination of Tea, Stains, Etc.' (1884)

"Health, Strength, and Vigour..." (tree print). Image Taken from page 18 of John Bewick, 'The Blossoms of Morality ... Fourth Edition' (London: J. Swan, 1806)

Fig. 85. Image taken from page 459 of Friedrich Ratzel, 'Bibliothek geographischer Handbücher. Herausgegeben von ... F. Ratzel' (Stuttgart: 1885)

Wollaston's reflecting Goniometer. Image taken from page 160 of David Thomas Ansted, 'An Elementary Course of Geology, Mineralogy, and Physical Geography ... Second Edition' (London: John Van Voorst 1856) In the public domain courtesy of the British Library. Identifier: 000092983

Fig. 2. Image taken from page 186 of Joseph Amesbury, 'Practical Remarks on the Nature and Treatment of Fractures of the Trunk and Extremities, etc' (London: Longman & Co., 1831) In the public domain courtesy of the British Library. Identifier: 000070452